Aviation History, Part III

September 25th, 2022 by admin No comments »

Airships have been proposed as a potential cheap alternative to surface rocket launches for achieving Earth orbit. JP Aerospace has proposed the Airship to Orbit project,Guest Posting which intends to float a multi-stage airship up to mesospheric altitudes of 55 km (180,000 ft) and then use ion propulsion to accelerate to orbital speed. At these heights, air resistance would not be a significant problem for achieving such speeds. The company has not yet built any of the three stages.

NASA has proposed the High Altitude Venus Operational Concept, which comprises a series of five missions including manned missions to the atmosphere of Venus in airships. Pressures on the surface of the planet are too high for human habitation, but at a specific altitude the pressure is equal to that found on Earth and this makes Venus a potential target for human colonization.

The advantage of airships over airplanes is that static lift sufficient for flight is generated by the lifting gas and requires no engine power. This was an immense advantage before the middle of World War I and remained an advantage for long-distance or long-duration operations until World War II. Modern concepts for high-altitude airships include photovoltaic cells to reduce the need to land to refuel, thus they can remain in the air until consumables expire.

The disadvantages are that an airship has a very large reference area and comparatively large drag coefficient, thus a larger drag force compared to that of airplanes and even helicopters. Given the large frontal area and wetted surface of an airship, a practical limit is reached around 130–160 kilometers per hour (80–100 mph). Thus airships are used where speed is not critical.

The lift capability of an airship is equal to the buoyant force minus the weight of the airship. This assumes standard air-temperature and pressure conditions. Corrections are usually made for water vapor and impurity of lifting gas, as well as a percentage of inflation of the gas cells at liftoff. Based on specific lift (lifting force per unit volume of gas), the greatest static lift is provided by hydrogen (11.15 N/m3 or 71 lbf/1000 cu ft) with helium (10.37 N/m3 or 66 lbf/1000 cu ft) a close second. At 6.13 N/m3 (39 lbf/1000 cu ft), steam is a distant third. Other cheap gases, such as methane, carbon monoxide, ammonia and natural gas have even less lifting capacity and are flammable, toxic, corrosive, or all three (neon is even more costly than helium, with less lifting capacity). Operational considerations such as whether the lift gas can be economically vented and produced in flight for control of buoyancy (as with hydrogen) or even produced as a byproduct of propulsion (as with steam) affect the practical choice of lift gas in airship designs.

In addition to the static lift, an airship can obtain a certain amount of dynamic lift from its engines. Dynamic lift in past airships has been about 10% of the static lift. Dynamic lift allows an airship to “take off heavy” from a runway similar to fixed-wing and rotary-wing aircraft. However, this requires additional weight in engines, fuel and landing gear, negating some of the static lift capacity.

The altitude at which an airship can fly largely depends on how much lifting gas it can lose due to expansion before stasis is reached. The ultimate altitude record for a rigid airship was set in 1917 by the L-55 under the command of Hans-Kurt Flemming when he forced the airship to 7,300 m (24,000 ft) attempting to cross France after the “Silent Raid” on London. The L-55 lost lift during the descent to lower altitudes over Germany and crashed due to loss of lift. While such waste of gas was necessary for the survival of airships in the later years of World War I, it was impractical for commercial operations or operations of helium-filled military airships. The highest flight made by a hydrogen-filled passenger airship was 1,700 m (5,500 ft) on the Graf Zeppelin’s around-the-world flight. The practical limit for rigid airships was about 900 m (3,000 ft), and for pressure airships around 2,400 m (8,000 ft).

Modern airships use dynamic helium volume. At sea-level altitude, helium takes up only a small part of the hull, while the rest is filled with air. As the airship ascends, the helium inflates with reduced outer pressure, and the air is pushed out and released from the downward valve. This allows an airship to reach any altitude with balanced inner and outer pressure if the buoyancy is enough. Some civil aerostats could reach 100,000 ft (30,000 m) without explosion due to overloaded inner pressure.

A New Definition of Technology – The Scientific Texts That Guide Human Activity

March 22nd, 2022 by admin No comments »

The advances in technology will send humans to Mars in the near future. Internet of things, 5G, artificial intelligence, automated driving, and so on and on, probably no one is able to list all the new technologies that are emerging. The complexity of the technological world is wonderful but just as bewildering, and difficult to grasp. Yet, the researchers, engineers, and technicians just need to focus on their own portion of the work. The complex robots are composed of smaller functional units that are manageable by the respective professionals. They are guided by scientific texts and in the minds. Despite the complexity of technologies, they will finally be traced to the simple origin in scientific texts.

Wikipedia defines technology as “Technology is the sum of techniques, skills, methods, and processes used in the production of goods or services or the accomplishment of objectives, such as scientific investigation.” In the bing.com search, technology is defined as “the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes, especially in industry.” The definitions are broad, seemingly to include all useful ways of humans achieving something. Indeed, technology is itself a broad term with many valid definitions. Both definitions are correct in that they describe facts. But they don’t explain the meaning of the terms such as “techniques”, “application” and “scientific knowledge”, which are vague terms and could involve all the things in the universe.

Since we defined science in terms of texts in the paper “a new definition of science – the textual foundation that represents the real world”, technology should also be defined in terms of texts due to its scientific nature. Science and technology are closely related and inseparable in the modern world.

1. Scientific texts – the core of technology

We consider texts as the core of science, which should also be in the core of technology due to the essentially same nature of science and technology. Now we are not repeating the textual nature of science/technology, interested readers can refer to our article “language – the core of science”.

Science is able to represent everything, including human behavior. Not only natural phenomena are represented and accumulated, so are human activities. The procedures, methods, details of making achievement are recorded in texts, which are then established as representations. With the textual representations, human activities are organized, classified, and building upon existing known technologies.

Characteristics of technology

Usually, technology is viewed from the angle of its effect on the societies, such as its relations with culture, its practical use, its relation with the economy, politics, etc. These are more of its manifests than its essence. They are of non-textual nature or centered on non-texts. Attributing the characteristics of technology to the various aspects of societies not only complicates the issue, leading to endless interactions but also switch people’s intentions away from technology’s true nature.

Facing the complexity, variations of the ubiquitous and ever-changing technologies, we should think deeply into the characteristics common to all technologies, which texts possess. Represented by texts, technology gets its essential features common to all technologies.

Technical documentation

Methods, skills, materials, procedures, principles, and so forth, all need to be documented for understanding, learning, communication, and recording purposes. User manuals, technical specifications are usually the first stuff needed by customers and engineers, either during product shipment or during product development stages. Technical documents even describe a product more accurately than the product’s actual operations. Despite the complex operations, deviation in operating conditions and by different individuals, abundant materials, changing personnel, documents are relatively stable, simple, accurate, reliable, and explanatory.

Again, it should be emphasized that scientific texts take effect in mind. The technical documents should take effect in mind and don’t equate to the technological texts in mind.

2. Differences between science and technology

It is needed to find the differences between science and technology. Although they have the essential cores, their appearances and emphases are different to account for various aspects of the human world.

Science and technology have similar branches and knowledge. The main difference between science and technology is their goal and objective. Science’s purpose is to observe and explain, while technology aims at taking action and making changes. Their direction is opposite to each other. Science is more of observation, while technology emphasizes action. The same texts can be considered as science or technology depending on the objective and usage. For example, the law of motion is itself a science, but it becomes technology when being utilized to make and operate machinery.

Technology is tightly associated with the man-made world. Human activities have changed the world’s appearance and the way people live. These are the direct result of technologies, although it can also say the people applied science to achieve all these. By intuition, science is a deeper and basic level of knowledge, while technology is more associated with direct applications. Science tends to be fundamental while technology tends to be detailed. But texts play an equally central role in their formations.

Nowadays, information spreads instantly; products are transported speedily. People increasingly lived in environments surrounded by machine-manufactured products and constructions. It became easier for people to achieve their goals by employing existing knowledge and tools. On the other hand, many curiosities can be answered by entering questions into search engines, in seconds. It seems everyone possesses enough knowledge. All one needs is to take action. As a result, more people became action-oriented, the term “technology” is becoming more popular than the term “science”.

Reputation Management is the Answer How Your Business Is Perceived

March 1st, 2022 by admin No comments »

Is it true that you are keen on finding out about dealing with your standing? Have you been searching for accommodating and solid data? Indeed, this article will ensure you get a few strong ideas. It will assist you with sorting out some way to more readily deal with your standing.

Posting data via online media locales is essential to your business’ standing. You should post a few times each week at any rate to actually run an advertising effort. Assuming you see that posting via online media locales is overpowering, consider recruiting an aide to make your posts for you.

At the point when individuals invest in some opportunity to offer something about your business, it is vital that you are sufficiently gracious to answer. While you might be an extremely bustling individual, it shows your crowd that you really care about them and what they need to say. This is imperative to keep a consistent client base.

At the point when you talk with your crowd, ensure that you do as such in a conversational tone. Individuals try to avoid the possibility of entrepreneurs continuously addressing them with promoting to them. While you would like to make a deal, you ought to never cause a client to feel like this is your main concern.

Be grateful. Assuming somebody leaves a decent audit about your organization, send them an individual message and express gratitude toward them for their criticism. On the off chance that conceivable, send your client a coupon for a specific percent off on their next buy as a much obliged. In the event that this is preposterous, earnestly say thanks to them for their input.

Assuming you will utilize anybody’s thoughts, you ought to constantly make a point to give them credit for that. Everybody out there can advance a little from others, so giving due credit will show individuals that you don’t think you are over that. This is an extraordinary method for getting their appreciation.

On the off chance that you own a business, treat your representatives consciously. Any other way, you might foster a negative standing as an entrepreneur. Certain individuals won’t give you business as a result of it.